Langue:   Language:   Nyelv:  
Advanced search

Europe in multiple circles: variations on the theme of

Külügyi Szemle 2005/3-4 - 15 novembre, 2005
Analyse and essay
Hajnalka Vincze

The present analysis examines one of the crucial points of the debates on the European Union’s evolution, namely the issue of "differentiation". With respect to this integration approach, commonly known under the names of "multi-speed Europe", "hard core" or "variable geometry", the paper underlines the fact that in itself this is neither a positive, nor a negative category. Whether increasing differentiation will lead to the disintegration or the revitalization of the integration depends, in fine, on two things: in the service of which policy and applying which modalities these flexibility measures will be put in practice.

After the clarification of the terminology and the categorization of the concepts, a short historical outline proposes to shed a light on the whole process. Next follows a study of the practical and theoretical examples of the various forms (avant-garde, pick and choose, concentric circles, enhanced co-operations, directorate etc). To conclude, the article evokes the political and substantial question marks related to the diverse flexibility scenarios. It puts an emphasis on the fact that reflections are ceaselessly intensifying on the subject. The only unknown factor is to know which one of the scenarios and at which moment will be compatible with the logic of events and the balance of forces, in order to prove to be a viable solution, prone to promote Europeans’ collective sovereignty and capacity to act. For more information on the content of the article, please contact the author.




News Briefs
Belgian Parliament nearly puts an end to the stationing of US nuclear bombs

EU Seat on the UNSC? A False Good Idea: Attractive but Counterproductive

It would be desirable to see Europe “speaking with one voice”...

The French defense minister tries to convince the US on the idea of European autonomy

At the Atlantic Council in Washington, Florence Parly...

Macron against the US-bound diversion of European defense budgets

Emmanuel Macron has rocked a very sensitive boat. For decades,...

On Syria and Trump, President Macron in the illusion of influence

A couple of seconds within a two-and-a-half hour television...

Europe’s Voters Have Spoken…But What Did They Say?

I had the pleasure to discuss the results of German elections,...

Conversation on the eve of French presidential elections

I had the pleasure to discuss the upcoming French elections with...

EU calls for non-interference from America

During a discussion at the Atlantic Council in Washington,...

Jump into the Unknown - guide to the Trump Presidency (Foreign Affairs)

Soon-to-be President Trump, the best ally for France's European policy

NATO "obsolete", the Brexit "a success"? The bluntly expressed...

Most popular