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Berne (Switzerland), April 21-23 2002

The European Security ESDI-CESDP Study Group (ESSG) has held his second 2002 meeting in Berne, Switzerland on April 21-23, 2002, as scheduled, on the invitation of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs who set up an excellent program in a very pleasant and useful sequence of events.


The following members attended the meeting:

· Mrs Brigitta Alani,SIPRI,Sweden
· Ms Monika Anton, NATO school, Oberammergau
· Mr Vladimir Bilcik, Slovak Foreign Policy Association
· Mr Edvardas Borisovas, MFA, Lithuania
· Ms Laure Borgomano-Loup, NATO Defense College, Rome
· Major Gheorghe Ciascai, Romanian MOD, Bucharest
· Professor Richard Cohen, GCMC, Garmisch
· Mr Etienne Desbordes, NATO School, Oberammergau
· Dr Mehmet Elezi, IISS, Tirana, Albania
· MG Alain Faupin, GCMC, Garmisch, co-chair
· Ambassador Nedzad Hadzimuzic, MFA, BiH
· Ms Vincze Hajnalka, Inst. for Strategic and Defense Studies, Budapest
· Dr Erich Hochleitner, OEIES, Vienna,
· LTC Thomas Kabs, NATO school, SHAPE, Oberammergau, Germany
· Col Georges Kuttlein, MOD, Paris
· Dr Plamen Pantev, ISIS, Sofia, Bulgaria, co-chair
· Dr Dmitry Polikanov, PIR Institute, Moscow, Russia
· Dr Ivo Samson, Slovak Foreign Policy Association, Bratislava, Slovakia
· Dr Mladen Stanisic, Director IMO, Zagreb, Croatia
· Mr Mark Wittrock, PfpCSecretariat, Garmisch,Germany

The following individuals from Switzerland and the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs, DCAF and GCSP (Geneva)

· Ambassador Blaise Godet, Political Director of the Swiss MFA
· Dr Christian Catrina, Deputy Head of Security and Defense Policy
· Ambassador Jacques de Watteville, Head of the Economic and Financial l Division, MFA,Berne
· Ambassador Jean-Jacques de Dardel, Head, Euro-Atlantic security section, MFA
· Mr Jean-Paul Rouiller, Senior Analyst, Swiss MFA
· Mr Lukas Schifferle, MFA, Berne
· Ms Anja Ebnoether, DCAF, Geneva
· Mr Thierry Tardy, GCSP, Geneva


· Colonel Aubrey, Defense Attaché, US Embassy, Berne
· Colonel Nick Pratt, Professor, GCMC, Garmisch, (guest speaker)


The meeting focused on "The Impact of the "Global War On Terrorism" ("GWOT") on European Security" and on the following points :

· Presentation by the Swiss MFA of its current Foreign Policy, especially after the vote of the Swiss people in favor of joining the United Nations
· Latest developments regarding ESDI-CESDP and the transatlantic link after the operations in Afghanistan and the measures taken in the wake of 9/11, in every European subregion, in Russia and in the US
· Russia facing the ESDP in the light of recent events, of the future enlargements and after the Laeken Summit.
· Preparation of the 5th Annual Conference in Paris

· Future agenda and current projects of all participating institutions and organizations, publications, workshops, research etc...

The meeting allowed the attainment of most of those points in spite of very severe time constraints. As ever, time was too short to cover all the issues but the main topic (GWOT) has been addressed by all the present members. Their presentations will be published in principle in the June edition of Dr Mladen Stanisic's quarterly magazine, insofar as he receives the contributions in time.

Three formal presentations were made by outsiders, one by Mr Jean-Paul Rouiller, Swiss MoD, giving the main features of the "new terrorism", the second by Ambassador Jacques de Watteville, Swiss MFA, on the financial aspects of the struggle against terrorism and the last one by Colonel USMC (ret) Nick Pratt, Professor at the Marshall Center on the "New Terrorism" (hand-out attached).

A special mention should be made of Professor Richard Cohen's presentation (UK), a thorough analysis of his own on the ways and means "to overcome the terrorist threat to trans-atlantic relations" in six parts: -differing perceptions of the terrorist threat
-the limits of "soft power"
-differing responses to terrorism
-European views on US foreign and security policy
-Iraq: the next phase?
-a way forward : cooperative security.
His presentation is attached to this AAR.

Ambassador de Dardel's presentation on the current foreign European and security policy of Switzerland has been handed out to all participants and will appear in Dr Stanisic's paper. It is a very clear and interesting piece which outlines Swiss security policy concerns and foresees the changes and perspectives brought about by the recent decision of the Swiss people to join the United Nations.

It permitted also to hear and debate of the Bosnian, Croatian, Lithuanian and German, NATO and EU, Austrian, French, Roumanian, Bulgarian, Slovak, Albanian, Swedish and American views and perpectives on the CESDP and ESDI under the current stress of the September 11 events and of the first phase of the "Global War On Terrorism". The very open-minded and candid presentations by all participating members and guests was followed by very active -but too limited- Q/A periods. These very brilliant, complete and interesting contributions helped in understanding were did Europe stand in this effort, and how the overall European security was at stake.

All the members of the SG regretted very much the absence of their colleague from the United States though both Mark Wittrock and Colonel Nick Pratt managed to give an assessment and an American point of view on this question.

3. Current projects and future agenda

· One hour of the meeting was devoted to exchanging information on the different projects, endeavors, achievements, articles, research, conference, events occuring in the "area of responsibility" of each participant. This exercise has become a standard procedure, but the time devoted is too short. The recommendation is to do this at the beginning of the future meetings of our study group.

· To make this report more useful, I would thank everyone in the SG and our Swiss hosts, to complete this paragraph by a few lines on the recent, current and future activities, research and publications (in the field of European security) of their own, and of their Institute, Organization or Administration. Please enter them under your own heading within this paragraph.

Recent evolutions in Swiss international security policy:

Switzerland participates with a contingent of policemen in the IPTF in Bosnia Herzegovina. It was invited to the 1st March meeting of the Political and security Committee of the EU, and has indicated its readiness in principle to participate in the EU led EUPM which will succeed the IPTF at the beginning of 2003.
The Swiss contingent part of KFOR in Kosovo, SWISSCOY, is growing in size to 220 men. It will be complemented by a new mechanised infantry unit, as well as by a helicopter unit.
Switzerland has proposed the creation of a new chapter of PfP cooperation on Security sector Reform, and is preparing a number of international workshops in Bulgaria, Croatia and Switzerland, in the fields of Civil-Military interaction in Security Management, SALW Management and the OSCE Code of Conduct, among others.

· The date of the next meeting has been set up; it will take place in Paris on June 17-19. It is the Annual Conference of the Pfp Consortium which all of you have already received an invitation to attend. The agenda has already been set up and we would be glad to accomodate any wish or suggestion expressed by a SG member. What remains to be done is to clarify the participation to the Study Group panels:
As you know, our group will be twice on the "stage": once for its "normal business" with four topics, still to define, and to be addressed by four speakers, as we did in Moscow last year. And once for a combined session of two-three hours with Dr Jack Kangas Study group on "NATO's future": two more speakers would be needed for this session in addition to the chairs. Please, let us know what your recommandations are, as soon as possible.
Most of the invitations have already been sent. If you did not receive anything yet, please let me know right away . The list of the funded participants that I have transmitted to the Secretariat of the Consortium is still attached as "Attachment 2". You must reserve as soon as possible your participation , hotels etc… . The electronic forms that you find on the Consortium site, under "Annual Conference in Paris" are very convenient to use .

· I recall hereunder the dates and venues of the next meetings for 2002 and 2003 (one year ahead) which have already been set up and reached your agreement:

- STOCKHOLM (SIPRI) "Fall meeting" September 8-10, 2002
- OBERAMMERGAU "Winter Meeting" January 26-28, 2003
- CROATIA (IMO) "Spring meeting" April XX-XX, 2003
- BERLIN , Annual PfpC Conference, June XX-XX, 2003

· Research Projects:

-Dr Baranovsky's research project has been forwarded for approval to Dr Andreas Wenger, ETH in Zürich, Switzerland. It has been formally approved and ETH will finance the edition of the book in English. France has proposed to take over the honorarium of the writers. We have the formal confirmation. It is therefore up to the participants in this research project to take over their part of responsibility and begin their writing in cooperation with their co-authors. A new date have to be defined now . I personally suggest the Berlin meeting in June 2003.

- Dr Ivo Samson has proposed another theme of research which he has introduced during the meeting in Berne. This project has been recognized by the Group as a very interesting attempt to clarify the position of the different candidates prior to the Prag summit. It might not be too difficult to use the vehicle of the Athena papers to publish the results of this research. But we have got to put up a very tight schedule. The ball is currently in Ivo's yard.

· Editing and printing problems have marred the first issue (mainly the result of our Study Group's work) of the Qarterly Journal of the Pfp Consortium which was to be issued by surface mail on November 10, 2001 after a 5 month delay. I have also noticed that payments of the honoraria to the authors of the different articles had not taken place either. I have consulted with Kirk Murray, Executive Director of the Secretariat and Dr Peter Foot, Head of the Editorial Board. We have met last week in Kingston , Ontario and this is the result of this consultation. I have elected to give you in full the correspondence I received yesterday from Dr Foot.

"Dear Colleagues,

1. Here is an update on what developments have occurred since we last met and made decisions.

2. First of all, I want to thank most sincerely the staff of the PfP Consortium Secretariat, especially Kevin Morgan, for bringing things to the good position we are now in. The task of grafting on to an under-resourced, largely educational - and US Army -institution the requirements of an on-going publishing enterprise, in four languages, only has to be stated for an impression to be gained of the complexities involved. Nor are these entirely over yet.

3. The fruit of the efforts can be summarised: at Paris, there will be a four-language version of CONNECTIONS The Quarterly Journal #1; a four-language version of #2; and at least an English version of #3. Because of the location of the conference, it is important that every effort me made to ensure a French edition of #3. This, in effect, means that 10 separate publications have been progressed in a matter of a few months. In addition, the Secretariat have produces two unedited sets of Working Group Proceedings, papers in the original languages as delivered in sessions. This is a most welcome increase to the service the Consortium offers to the Working Group - at very little extra work for the Editorial Board (not a 'lazy' point to make, either!).

4. Because of the intensity of these efforts, there will be no Bulletins. It has simply not been possible to add a supply of Bulletins to the volume of work going through commissioning, editing, translation, proofreading, contracting, printing and delivery. Now will there be new Athena Papers. This is partly for the reasons given for the Bulletin but go beyond that. As your Convenor, I have been myself too immersed in the programme of production to give enough emphasis to this. At the Secretariat Working Group held at the Royal Military College of Canada last week, with Dr Ian Anthony and General Alain Faupin in attendance as chairs of Working Groups, I argued strongly for the retention of the Athena Papers as at least equal to the intellectual potential of the Quarterly Journal and that the Editorial Board could not properly serve the Consortium as a whole if all we produced was The Quarterly. I am off to the NATO Defence College Rome shortly where I hope to contract more versions of papers which can be readily produced under Consortium auspices. (The great thing about them is that they are already proofread in both French and English and really only need a Russian language version to be created; this is minimal work relative to producing a full edition of the Quarterly.)

5.I want to pay proper credit to Ian Anthony and General Faupin. The former has assembled a really excellent collection of pieces that, in my view, deliver all aspects of our policy of 'theme + region'. The second issue of the Journal is, again in my view, excellent. And General Faupin has carried both the first and third issues. The first one, now being distributed to more than 20000 addresses, reads rather better before a certain date in September last year but nonetheless remains a solid piece of work, with the right kind of names to retain interest. The third edition - which includes the General's slightly cheeky habit of commissioning more articles that have been costed - is very South Caucasus rich. It represents a series of articles written from a national perspective. These have been well assembled and edited by his Parisian colleague, Annie Jafalian, at the strategy centre run by François Heisbourg."

…And this message, received yesterday from Dr Peter Foot, seems to answer some questions posed during our meeting in Berne. It is not so easy to work without funds, with only very limited human and secretarial resources and relying only on the good will of a happy few. I am convinced that you all understand and will keep on your generous track.:

"Dear General,

I am pleased to say that all payments for Journal #1 have been despatched,
with the possible exception of Vladimir Baranovsky. I have a vague memory
of sending his via someone else already. I will check with him. The
Journal copies have been sent with each one, and in the case of Hartmut Buhl and Ambassador Dr. Erich Hochleitner, reference made to the web site access decision that I took.

For all future payments, this will be handled by the secretariat itslef.
Kevin Morgan has ben asked to come up with a management method of best
dealing with this. we will apply this to Journals #2 & 3 - and thereafter."

4. Miscellanous

· A special attention will be paid to the ESDI-CESDP SG website. Our Ukrainians friends have proposed their services in Kiev. Unfortunately, they have not been able to attend the Berne meeting. We shall nevertheless retain their proposal and discuss it in Paris. But in the meantime, we shall make sure with the Pfp/C Webmaster in Garmisch of what can be done right away.

· You remember that our Ukrainians friends have recommended that an ADL course be set up on the European Security and Defense Issue. That is a very good idea, very consistent with the goals of the Consortium. Talks have to take place between the ADL WG and our SG; other organizations might also be willing to capture this program (ETH in Zürich for example, the ADL Working Group of the Pfp Consortium or CID in France). We should be more precise in expressing our wishes, find a "pilot" within our SG and launch an initiative. Who would volunteer?

· As you have noticed in Rome and in Berne the new members of our Study Group: Mr Edvardas Borisovas, from MFA, Lithuania, Ltc Thomas Kabs , from the NATO school, Ms Laure Borgomano-Loup, from the NDC, Ambassador Nedzad Hazimusic, from MFA, BiH, Dr Dmitry Polikanov from the PIR Institute in Moscow. Are attending with assiduity. They have been joined by other new members, namely Mr Richard Cohen, UK, professor at the George C. Marshall Center, Mr Etienne Desbordes and Ms Monica Anton from the NATO School (Oberammergau), Major Gheorghe Ciascai from MOD, Romania.

· Unfortunately, we shall be prepared to miss Colonel Georges Kuttlein (MOD France) and Ms Brigitta Alani but we do hope that they will manage to send us good successors.

· Last but not least, the question of our Study Group title : "European Security: ESDI-CESDP Study Group", acronym : ESSG

5. Thanks

Many thanks to Ambassador Jean-Jacques de Dardel for his perfect organization and very efficient handling of this tenth ESSG meeting in its thirtiest month of existence. The very warm welcome, the quality of the reception and the extraordinary sense of hospitality and generosity that he displayed, made us all feel very comfortable from the first to the last hour of our presence on the Swiss ground
The logistics were perfectly handled in conjunction with Mark Wittrock whose difficult job should be recognized, himself deserving a lot of kudos for his quiet dedication to the well being and the good working of our Group (I just repeat what I have said last time, but with a special mention because he, too, is leaving us for Washington D.C, US State Department).
The side events Ambassador de Dardel and his very able team organized in downtown Berne and in the city of Morat brought to all of us a very good vision of the Swiss cultural and social aspects that we are not about to forget and added to the interest of this meeting.
The interest vested in our Group by the Swiss authorities are an additional incentive to go ahead.
A special mention also for the remarkable performance of the ever smiling and effective Lukas Schifferle.

I do repeat my thanks for the great and generous proposal made by to Dr Mladen Stanisic to edit and publish in the review of his institute (IMO), the reports of our meetings and the presentations which have been made on that occasion. We would be very grateful to all of you to forward your text, or a short resumé to Dr Stanisic, right away (with a cc for me and Dr Pantev, if possible)

Many thanks also to all the participants who showed great dynamism, curiosity and will to connect, which, by all means is the ultimate goal of the Consortium.

Major- General (ret) Alain FAUPIN
Co-chairman, ESDI/CESDP S.G

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